Etching - Hard grounds

Etching is the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal (the original process—in modern manufacturing other chemicals may be used on other types of material). As an intaglio method of printmaking it is, along with engraving, the most important technique for old master prints, and remains widely used today.
The process can be repeated many times; typically several hundred impressions (copies) could be printed before the plate shows much sign of wear.
The work on the plate can also be added to by repeating the whole process; this creates an etching which exists in more than one state.
Etching has often been combined with other intaglio techniques such as engraving (e.g. Rembrandt) or aquatint (e.g. Goya).

Artists using this technique include:
Albrecht Dürer
Jacques Callot
Francisco Goya
Giovanni Battista Piranesi

James Abbott McNeill Whistler

Marc Chagall
Otto Dix
James Ensor
Edward Hopper
Pablo Picasso
Leon Wyczółkowski
Józef Mehoffer
Józef Pankiewicz
Wojciech Weiss

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